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The East India Companys monopoly on the tea trade was more of a reason for the American Revolution than the cost of the tax.Through a political arrangement the tea was actually coming in for less than it could be bought in England. Joshua Bates, a partner in Baring Brothers Bank, handled the family business in London. Russell Sturgis's grandson later became Chairman of the Board of Barings. found that illegality both in nature and operation discouraged competition and used sporadic attempts by the Chinese Government to enforce their opium prohibition, "to [build] the machinery that allowed it to control the Canton market for Turkish opium." Perkins & Company became the first American firm to operate a "storeship" at Lintin in a new smuggling procedure.
1796-1820): The Opium War (1839-1842) & Nanking Treaty "Wangxia Treaty" [US] & Whampoa Treaty [France] Second Opium Wars (185660) & Arson of Summer Palace Taiping (Grand Peace) Heavenly Kingdom Rebellion Foreign Enterprises Movement (Self-Strengthening) Manchu Military System: Brave-Camp Army & New Army Russian Encroachments [1847-1900] 1876 Anglo-Chinese Yantai Treaty 1884-1885 Franco-Chinese War Imperialist Encroachments On Korea 1894 Sino-Japanese War Rise of Yuan Shi-kai Start Of Water-Melon Partitioning Hundred Day Reformation The Boxers & Invasion by Eight Allied Nations Rise of Yuan Shi-kai (Continued) Russo-Japanese War Over Manchuria Aassassinations & Uprisings 'Retaining Railroad' Movement Wuchang Uprising & Xin Hai Revolution The Manchus were both a blessing and a disaster for China. Dozens of years later, Zheng Chenggong, son of pirate-turned Ming General Zheng Zhilong, would first adopt the approach of "defeating the aliens by means of the aliens' weapons". 1662, Zheng Chenggong successfully expelled from Taiwan Island the Dutch who, having colonized the island from 1624 to 1662, already latinized the aboriginals' language to the extent that the aboriginals no longer remembered their own native language.
A "loyalist" cousin, who fled America during the War of Independence, George Perkins was a merchant in Symrna. was brother-in-law of Russell Sturgis, an uncle to J. Other eastern merchants failed, died, or retired like John Jacob Astor.